Since its passage, however, the advancement of broadband technology to supply data, voice, and video; the growing convergence of the telecommunications and media sectors; and the growth in demand for usable radio-frequency spectrum has led to a consensus that the laws that govern these sectors have become inadequate to address this rapidly changing environment and have, according to a growing number of policymakers, made it necessary to consider revising the current regulatory framework. The issues covered in this report include broadband deployment, broadband regulation and access, broadcast media ownership rules, funding for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, emergency communications, legal issues regarding facilities siting, Federal Communications Commission oversight and reform, Internet governance and the domain name system, reauthorization of statutory copyright and communications provisions in the Satellite Television Extension and Localism Act, spectrum policy and wireless broadband deployment, and Universal Service Fund reform.
Rather than addressing the specific legislative, regulatory, and industry activities, this report provides an overview of these major issues. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Concerns about information-system security and other aspects of cybersecurity are long-standing.
The frequency, impact, and sophistication of cyberattacks and the growth of cybercrime and cyberespionage have added urgency to the concerns. Consensus has been growing that the policy framework for cybersecurity take into account the diversity and continuing evolution of the technology and threats—from spam to botnets to hacktivism, cyberterrorism, and cyberwar—and the increasing role of the Internet in the U.
Among the issues the th Congress is expected Spectrum Policy: Provisions in the Spectrum Act. October 18, — September 9, R The provisions in Title VI—also known as the Public Safety and Spectrum Act, or the Spectrum Act—cover reallocation of spectrum, new assignments of spectrum rights, and changes in procedures for repurposing spectrum used by the federal government.
The act establishes a process for television broadcasters to release spectrum licensed to them for auction as commercial licenses Broadcast Congressional Research Service www. In its current form, it has existed since the reorganization of the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations. Policy Implications of the Internet of Things. This report briefly discusses the Internet of Things IoT , which is an umbrella term that many policymakers use to refer to the technologies and network structures that interconnect objects, humans, and animals to collect and analyze data and manage processes.
January 4, — August 14, R Cloud computing services are delivered through a network, usually the Internet. Some cloud services are adaptations of familiar applications, such as e-mail and word processing. Others are new applications that never existed as a local application, such as online maps and social networks. Since , the federal government has The federal government supports scientific and technological advancement directly by funding research and development and indirectly by creating April 28, — February 18, R It also provides an overview of FY appropriations for agencies and bureaus funded as a part of the annual appropriation for CJS.
The annual CJS appropriations act provides funding for the Departments of Commerce and Justice, the science agencies, and several related agencies. Appropriations for the Department of Commerce include funding for agencies such as the Census Bureau; the U. Patent and December 7, — December 12, R For more than a decade, various experts have expressed increasing concerns about cybersecurity, in light of the growing frequency, impact, and sophistication of attacks on information systems in the United States and abroad.
Consensus has also been building that the current legislative framework for cybersecurity might need to be revised.
The complex federal role in cybersecurity involves both securing federal systems and assisting in protecting nonfederal systems. Under current law, all federal agencies have cybersecurity responsibilities relating to their own systems, and many have July 18, — October 30, R This report traces the current and possible future evolution of mobile communications networks and some of the changes in spectrum policy that might better accommodate innovation.
Telecommunications and Media Convergence: Selected Issues for Consideration . Congressional Research Service. Summary. The passage of. [PDF] Telecommunications and Media Convergence: Selected Issues for Consideration by Angele A. Gilroy. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device.
This report discusses issues with the operation and implementation of communication systems for self-driving vehicles. January 7, — July 2, R Thefts of credit-card and other customer information from major retailers in the fall of have renewed concerns about the security of credit cards and the information systems that hold, process, and transmit data from them, as well as other financial and personal information of consumers. The impacts and growing sophistication of such data breaches, along with the broader growth of cybercrime, has added urgency to long-standing concerns about the security of electronic data.
The table below provides names and contact information for CRS experts on data security, cybercrime, privacy, June 20, — December 27, R Public and private research and development spurs scientific and technological advancement. The federal government supports scientific and technological advancement by directly funding research and development and indirectly by creating Issues in Homeland Security Policy for the th Congress.
February 27, — September 23, R DHS is currently the third-largest department in the federal government, although it does not incorporate all of the homeland security functions at the federal level. The definition of homeland security remains unsettled, and questions about the effectiveness and efficiency of the department have been raised since it was first proposed.
The passage of the Telecommunications Act P.
Since its passage, however, the advancement of broadband technology to supply data, voice, and video; the growing convergence of the telecommunications and media sectors; and the growth in demand for usable radio-frequency spectrum has led to a consensus that the laws that govern these sectors have become inadequate to address this rapidly September 14, — June 28, R March 26, — April 24, R July 12, — April 23, R As the largest owner of federal data centers, with , the DOD has more than twice as many centers as any other agency.
By consolidating some of its data centers, DOD could have a significant positive impact on energy savings for the federal government. DOD has instituted a number of policy directives, as have all federal agencies, that influence energy use in its data centers. Data centers are facilities—buildings or parts of buildings—used to store, manage, and disseminate electronic information for a September 11, — January 14, R March 29, — January 10, R June 4, — January 3, R Despite government efforts to limit the flow of online news, Chinese Internet users are able to access unprecedented amounts of information, and political activists have utilized the web as a vital communications tool.
In recent years, Twitter-like microblogging has surged, resulting in dramatic cases of dissident communication and public comment on sensitive political issues. However, the web has proven to be less of a democratic catalyst in China than many observers had November 8, — March 6, R May 27, — January 5, R The United States has yet to find a solution that assures seamless communications among first responders and emergency personnel at the scene of a major disaster.
Since September 11, , when communications failures contributed to the tragedies of the day, Congress has passed several laws intended to create a nationwide emergency communications capability. The th Congress considered pivotal issues, such as radio frequency spectrum license allocation and funding programs for a Public Safety Broadband Network PSBN , without finding a solution that satisfied the expectations of both October 6, — December 8, R In the wake of those attacks, Congress made extensive changes to the structure and function of many agencies, establishing a consolidated Department of Homeland Security and dedicating significant additional resources expressly to the security of the homeland.
October 14, — July 11, R In addition, P. January 7, — January 10, R The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to critical infrastructure security.
Congressional Research Service,. This article has multiple issues. Differing from the party organs, the metropolis newspapers have consciously catered to the preferences of the audience in terms of content, including considerable emphasis on the timeliness, relevance and interesting aspects of the news, concentration on social and personal stories and a continuous increase in the proportion of entertainment and leisure contents. Prerequisite: Junior standing. Journalism Bimonthly Xinwen daxue 5: 54 —
Policy areas identified include: mission, magnitude, importance, relationship to departmental mission; policy, organization, and operations across all infrastructures; information disclosure, Freedom of Information Act FOIA ; security services, airport screeners, guards; specific sectors, assessing vulnerabilities, planning and implementation; agriculture; banking and finance; chemical; defense industry; emergency systems; energy; January 15, — January 7, R March 17, — January 3, R Modern means of communications, led by the Internet, provide a relatively inexpensive, open, easy-entry means of sharing ideas, information, pictures, and text around the world.
May 13, — December 21, R This report provides background information on P. It also discusses selected policy concerns identified in the debate about U.
It contains a description of federal multi-agency research and development initiatives Emergency Communications: The Future of November 21, — March 16, RL This report discusses possible paths toward the modernization of the infrastructure. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto the aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. September 4, — March 10, R June 5, — February 2, R On September 30, , President George W. This report includes a table that provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to emergency preparedness and hazard mitigation.
Includes a number of policy areas, such as: emergency preparedness and protection missions, functions, and structures; emergency authorities; preparedness plans; communications networks; warning systems; and state and local homeland security funding, training, and standards. This report discusses the unique characteristics that may dictate that government programs in support of broadband deployment be structured differently than conventional infrastructure programs. November 28, — November 26, May 27, — October 14, RS June 14, — September 10, RL Technological changes such as the advancement of Internet technology to supply data, voice, and video, the transition This report discusses public, educational, and governmental PEG access channels that are set aside for use by the general public, by local schools, colleges, and universities, and by elements of local government.
March 17, — August 8, RL This report provides an overview of "phantom traffic" -- i. The report discusses the causes of phantom traffic, phantom traffic and rural companies, issues, and related proposals. Broadband over Powerlines: Regulatory and Policy Issues. Congress has expressed significant interest in increasing the availability of broadband services throughout the nation. Broadband over powerlines BPL has the potential to play a significant role in increasing the competitive landscape of the communications industry as well as extend the reach of broadband to a greater number of Americans.
BPL, like any technology, has its advantages and disadvantages. May 11, — March 18, RL July 20, — March 17, RL In the Consolidated Appropriations Act, P. May 16, — December 26, RL Telecommunications Act: Competition, Innovation, and Reform. August 12, — June 7, RL The general objective of the Act was to open up markets to competition by removing unnecessary regulatory barriers to entry.
At that time, the industry was characterized by service-specific networks that did not compete with one another: circuit-switched networks provided telephone service and coaxial cable networks provided cable service. The act created distinct Appropriations bills reflect the jurisdiction of the subcommittees of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees in which they are considered.
Jurisdictions for the subcommittees of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees changed at the beginning of the th Congress. This comparative analysis of H.
References to the two bills are to engrossed versions. The presentation is organized to follow the basic construct of the House bill because its coverage remained more stable through the legislative process and as the analyses began. Titles unique to S. The authors of the varied segments of this The Federal Communications Commission FCC has released two reports on a la carte pricing of cable television networks that reach contradictory conclusions. The purpose of this report is to explain how these two reports reached differing conclusions and to analyze the different assumptions and calculations used in each.
February 10, — January 25, RL Congress has a strong interest in export control policy with regard to technologies that may have both commercial and military applications outside of the United States.
Through its constitutionally delegated authority to regulate foreign commerce, Congress has the authority to control exports for national security or foreign policy purposes. This report examines congressional interest in the exportation of High Performance Computers, which are either single computing machines usually called supercomputers or a cluster of easily available, high-end workstations or personal computers. June 13, — December 23, RL In the th Congress, both the House and Senate subcommittees had July 7, — December 22, RL February 25, — December 21, RL The development and deployment of missile defenses has not only been elusive, but has been one of the most divisive issues of the past generation until recent years.
The Bush Administration substantially altered the debate over missile defenses.